Friday, December 14, 2018

The Enigma Theme Relative Modes Cipher

After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music.

Elgar’s expertise in cryptography—the art of creating and decoding secret messages—is widely acknowledged. Craig Bauer, the editor in chief of the journal Cryptologia, devotes an entire chapter to Elgar’s obsession with secret codes in his book Unsolved! It should come as no surprise that the opening six bars of the Enigma Theme which comprise the first section of its ABA’C structure are permeated by a diverse array of cryptograms. These outwardly distinct yet interrelated ciphers encode solutions to three overarching riddles posed by Edward Elgar’s breakout symphonic masterpiece, the Enigma Variations. The primary one concerns a covert principal Theme to which the Enigma Theme is a cunningly crafted counterpoint. The second is a “dark saying” ensconced in the Enigma Theme. The third is the identity of a secret friend memorialized in Variation XIII.

One of the earliest cryptograms to be decrypted from the Enigma Theme’s opening section was the Enigma Locks Cipher. This secret code was first detected after it was determined the total notes played by each part in the full score does not exceed the number of letters in the alphabet. The note totals played through Section A by the first violins (24), second violins (17), violas (15), and cellos (12) are convertible to their corresponding letter in the alphabet relying on a basic number-to-letter key (a=1, b=2, c=3, etc…). The plaintext solution, LOQX, is a phonetic rendering of the word locks. This decryption is idiomatic of Elgar’s writing style because his personal correspondence bristles with inventive phonetic spellings.

Locks are opened by keys, and so are ciphers. Before venturing further, it is crucial to understand that tonal music is also written in a variety of contrasting keys. The unmasking of the Enigma Locks Cipher spurred a renewed interest in the musical keys of the Enigma Theme, a brief movement performed in the parallel keys of G minor and G major. The accidentals for those keys are B-flat, E-flat, and F-sharp. On closer inspection, the letters of those accidentals turn out to be an anagram of the initials for the covert Theme, Ein feste Burg. In a remarkable development, the Enigma Locks Cipher precipitated the discovery of the Enigma Keys Cipher, an exploratory progression described as a minor and major discovery.
Could Elgar have exploited other aspects of musical keys to encipher further corroborating information? To assess this possibility, a harmonic analysis of the Enigma Theme’s opening six measures was performed. The concept of tonicization is integral to harmonic analysis because the tonal center shifts temporarily due to the use of secondary dominants. The Harvard Dictionary of Music supplies the following definition of tonicization:
The momentary treatment of a pitch other than the tonic as if it were the tonic, most often by the introduction of its own leading tone or fourth scale degree or both. The resulting harmony is most likely to be the dominant of the tonicized pitch and is in such a case often termed a secondary or applied dominant. The triad formed on the leading tone of the tonicized pitch may also function in this way. Tonicization, which may be prolonged beyond a single chord or two, is nevertheless a local phenomenon, as distinct from modulation which implies an actual change in tonic. The boundary between the two, however, is not always easily fixed in practice
When a secondary dominant resolves to a degree other than the tonic, it makes the non-tonic chord sound like the tonic. This process is called tonicization. An accidental is a strong indicator of a secondary dominant because it alters a note’s pitch from what is specified by the key signature.

From the beginning to the downbeat of bar 3, the harmonic progressions are unequivocally based on the tonic key of G minor. The introduction of a C minor added sixth chord on the third beat of bar 3 followed by G dominant seventh chord on the downbeat of bar 4 tonicizes the fourth degree as it resolves to C minor. A German augmented sixth chord on the first beat of bar 5 heralds a return to G minor as it resolves to the tonic chord in the second inversion on beat 3. The tonic key is presaged by a Plagal cadence in bar 6 that resolves via a Picardy third to G major in bar 7 with the start of Section B.
One conspicuous feature of the harmonic analysis of the Enigma Theme’s Section A is the augmented German sixth chord on the downbeat of measure 5. This chord is a gigantic clue because the covert Theme’s complete title is six words in German. Other than the use of an augmented German sixth, the Enigma Theme’s harmonic progressions in Section A did not turn up any other obvious cryptograms.
Tonal music is defined by divergent keys that share certain relationships which are conveniently summarized by the circle of fifths. This geometric representation of a circle shows the twelve tones of the chromatic scale with their related key signatures and corresponding relative major and minor modes. It resembles a clock face with each number replaced by every fifth note in the musical scale beginning with C in the 12 o’clock position. With no sharps or flats in its key signature, C major begins the circle of fifths with a relative key of A minor. The minor key is defined as relative to a particular major key because they share the same key signature.
Proceeding clockwise to the next note a fifth above C is G major which has one sharp and a relative minor key of E. Following a fifth above G is D major with two sharps and a relative minor of B. This is succeeded a fifth above D by A major with three sharps and a relative key of F-sharp minor. This pattern of moving every fifth note higher continues with another sharp added at each step of the way until all seven sharps appear in the key of C-sharp major at the seven 0’clock position.

A similar process involving the flats takes place in the counterclockwise direction. At the 11 o’clock position is the note a fifth below C is the key of F major with one flat and a relative minor of D. The next step counterclockwise a fifth below F is B-flat major with two flats and a relative minor of G. A fifth below B-flat is E-flat with three flats and a relative minor of C. This process cycles through every fifth note lower accompanied by the addition of another flat to the key signature until all seven flats are cited in C-flat major at the 5 o’clock position. There is a remarkable symmetry with the circle of fifths which commences with no sharps or flats in the key of C major and culminates with all seven sharps C sharp major and all seven flats in C flat major. The circle of fifths captures an elegant mathematical precision to the organization of the key signatures in tonal music.
At the 5, 6 and 7 0’clock positions of the circle of fifths are musical keys that may be spelled by either some combination of sharps or flats. For example, G-flat major with six flats sounds indistinguishable from F-sharp major with six sharps. This is possible because the notes F-sharp and G-flat are the same pitch. The ability to spell the same note in two different ways is known as an enharmonic equivalent. This concept proves pivotal in the harmonic analysis of the Enigma Theme’s Section A.
The circle of fifths conveniently summarizes the key relationships between the major and relative minor modes. A major key is related to a specific minor key because they share the same key signature. For example, G major and E minor are related because their key signatures both have an F-sharp. Elgar hints at the cryptographic significance of the circle by encoding the number Pi in the first bar of the Enigma Theme’s melodic scale degrees (3-1-4-2). This mathematical constant is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. The Enigma Theme’s time signature (4/4) is also known as common time and may be represented by a capital C, a symbol that originated from a broken circle. This letter occupies the 12 o’clock position in the circle of fifths and is found in both key letters with all seven sharps and all seven flats. The most famous circle in music is indisputably the circle of fifths. By encoding Pi in the Enigma Theme’s first bar with a time signature of common time, Elgar subtly invites the savvy observer to refract the Enigma Theme’s harmonic progressions through the prism of the circle of fifths to reveal a coded message.
An analysis of the opening six measures of the Enigma Theme discloses that the relative modes of the tonal centers encode two of the three initials from the covert Theme’s title. The relative major keys of G and C minor are B-flat and E-flat respectively. These relative key letters are the first and third initials of the covert Theme’s three-word German title, Ein feste Burg. But what about the absent initial f? The German sixth chord furnishes the solution because its enharmonic equivalent is an E-flat dominant seventh with the C-sharp respelled as a D-flat. This alternate spelling comes from A-flat major with a relative minor of F. The enharmonic equivalent of the German sixth enciphers through its relative minor the remaining initial for Ein feste Burg. It is also salient to recognize that the sixth letter of the alphabet just so happens to be F.

The relative modes of the Enigma Theme’s tonal centers in Section A directly encipher two of the three initials for the covert Theme’s title. The absent initial is implicated by the relative mode of the enharmonic equivalent for the augmented German sixth chord. This cipher is merely one of at least seventeen different cryptograms within the Enigma Variations that encode the initials of the covert Theme.

The unique letters from the enharmonic equivalents of the tonicized progressions in Section A are an anagram of the word DEAD. The silence of the principal Theme is evocative of a passage from Psalm 37:17 that mentions the silence of the grave. In the original program note for the 1899 premiere of the Enigma Variations, Elgar likens the absent principal Theme to the mysterious protagonist who never appears on stage in various dramas by the Belgian playwright, Maeterlinck. That absent character is death. There was an indelible link between music and death for Elgar because as a boy he studied musical scores at a local churchyard while resting on a tombstone. In Variation XIII, Elgar repeatedly quotes a fragment from Mendelssohn’s concert overture Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt) to portray a ship crossing the open sea. This sonic symbolism was inspired by the poetry of the famed German playwright Goethe whose seemingly benign image of a boat adrift on a windless sea depicts the stillness of death (Todestille).
Why would Elgar make so many cryptic references to death in the Enigma Variations? The friend honored in secret by Variation XIII is Jesus Christ, the Savior of Elgar’s Roman Catholic faith who died and was miraculously resurrected. A musical cryptogram in that movement encodes DEAD G-D, and a discrete subset of ciphers in the Enigma Variations make veiled various references to Jesus’ burial cloth, the Shroud of Turin. That sacred relic still makes headlines today just as it did in the Spring of 1898 when Secondo Pia took the first official photographs that revealed for the first time on their negative plates the miraculous image of a crucified man many believe to be that of Jesus. The timing works because that historic event transpired five months before Elgar began to work seriously on the Enigma Variations.
Some scholars scoff at the vast trove of ciphers exhumed from the Enigma Variations and subjected to a detailed autopsy. What those career academics fail to appreciate is the old adage that “One man’s junk is another man’s treasure.” Although they contemptuously dismiss my research as dead wrong, the decryption of the Enigma Theme Relative Modes Cipher proves to be dead on. To learn more about the deep dark secrets of the Enigma Variations, read my free eBook Elgar’s Enigmas Exposed.

Friday, December 7, 2018

Elgar's Enigma Theme Falling Sevenths Cipher

Jesus with the seven stars and seven lampstands.
Fall down seven times and stand up eight.
Japanese Proverb

The British composer Edward Elgar composed the Enigma Variations between 1898 and 1899. This symphonic masterpiece was first performed in June 1899 under the baton of Hans Richter. A protégé of Wagner, Richter directed the inaugural performances of major works by his mentor as well as other luminaries like Brahms, Bruckner, and Dvořák. The premiere of the Enigma Variations catapulted Elgar to international acclaim, quashing the indignity of England’s protracted drought of eminent domestic composers since the heyday of Henry Purcell in the latter half of the 17th century. England would no longer be crassly belittled as “Das Land ohne Musik”—the land without music. Britain’s stigma was lifted by Elgar’s Enigma who unleashed a distinctly English soundtrack to usher in the dawn of the Edwardian era, sublime music that is still heard in epic films to the present day.
The Enigma Variations pose three ostensibly separate yet overlapping riddles: A covert principal Theme, a “dark saying” lurking within the Enigma Theme, and a secret friend memorialized in Variation XIII. The overarching puzzle centers on the Enigma Theme which is a counterpoint to a famous melody, a subject that has fueled prolonged debate and speculation. For the 1899 program note, Elgar acknowledged the Enigma Theme holds a “dark saying.” The term dark may be defined as something secret or hidden, and a saying is a string of words. While preparing a detailed set of notes laying out how he decoded a supposedly insoluble Nihilist cipher, Elgar wrote, “Example of working (in the dark).”
This appearance of the term dark in reference to a cryptogram bolsters the conclusion that Elgar’s curious phrase “dark saying” is coded language for a cipher ensconced within the Enigma Theme. Finally, Elgar identifies the dedicatees for each of the Variations using their initials, name, or nickname as the title. In place of one of these identifiers for Variation XIII, he placed three hexagrammic asterisks. The identity of Elgar’s secret friend remained a mystery for over a century. A triumvirate of riddles define the mysteries of the Enigma Variations—a covert melody, a coded message, and a confidential friend.
A set of pianola rolls were issued in 1929 by the Aeolian Company to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of the Enigma Variations. In anticipation of this release, Elgar prepared a brief series of remarks for each of the movements which were later published by Novello under the title My Friends Pictured Within. His comments for the Enigma Theme include the following arcane statement,  “The drop of the seventh in the Theme (bars 3 and 4) should be observed.” This unusual remark prompted Julian Rushton to postulate the correct solution to the Enigma Variations “...should take into account the characteristic falling sevenths of bars 3-4.” He opines, “Observed must mean more than merely performed, which might be the case if he had been referring to a dynamic marking…” In this context, the definition of observe means to “notice or perceive (something) and register it as being significant.” Based on Elgar’s published statement, there must be some remarkable features of these descending melodic sevenths in bars 3 and 4 that are somehow connected to the enigma.
A synonym for observe is to note. It is telling that Elgar uses the words observed and noted interchangeably in his expository comments. A clear illustration is his remark about Variation X, “The inner sustained phrases at first on the viola and latter on the flute should be noted.” Elgar’s request to observe the falling sevenths is a classic wordplay because they are formed by notes. What he coyly asks his audience to scrutinize are the notes of the descending melodic sevenths. Why would he make such a cryptic reference to the Enigma Theme’s descending sevenths? As a recognized expert in cryptography—the art of encoding and decrypting secret messages—Elgar’s puzzling reference to the falling sevenths in the Enigma Theme hints at the existence of yet another puzzle. His cryptic comment implies there is something to decrypt.
The first falling seventh in bar 3 is a G slurred to an A. These two notes are played by the first violins typically in third position with the G stopped by the fourth finger on the A string, and the A stopped by the second finger on the D string. One string crossing from the A to the D string is executed in bar 3 to complete this inaugural descending seventh. The second falling seventh in bar 4 is an F slurred to a G. The first violins commonly perform this passage in third position with the F stopped by the third finger on the A string, and the G stopped by the first finger on the D string. To play this second seventh, the first violins must cross back from the D to the A string and back again, bringing the total number of string crossings necessary to play both descending sevenths to three. There are many coded allusions to crossing in the Enigma Variations. For instance, the Enigma Theme is set in common time, a time signature that is conducted in a manner that replicates the sign of the cross.
The first pair of descending sevenths occurs in measures 3 and 4. The sum of these bar numbers is seven, a feature that strongly suggests these numbers are associated with the key to decoding this cipher. The first descending seventh occurs on the third beat of measure 3. Such a conjunction of simultaneous threes (33) is undoubtedly a coded reference to Elgar’s initials. He routinely signed his correspondence with his initials in the form of two capitalized cursive Es. These letters are the mirror or reverse image of 33. It was observed that exactly three string crossings are required to play the descending sevenths in bars 3 and 4. It should also be noted that the word three has two consecutive es.
There are a variety of cryptograms embedded within the Enigma Variations that Elgar cleverly initialed in some discernible way. Initials are a prevailing feature of the majority of the titles found in the Enigma Variations. Elgar’s coded initials also appear as precisely two E-flats in the accompanying parts of bars 3 and 4. The first E-flat is played by the cellos on the third beat of bar 3 in conjunction with the first descending seventh’s high note (G). The next E-flat is performed by the second violins on the third beat of bar 4 with the lower note (G) of the second falling seventh. It is abundantly apparent that Elgar’s initials bookend the beginning and end his Falling Sevenths Cipher.
What form of encipherment could he have employed involving the notes of the falling sevenths in bars 3 and 4 of the Enigma Theme? It is relevant to remember that Elgar was immersed in Roman lore during the months leading up to the genesis of the Enigma Variations. In 1897 and 1898, his artistic energies were directed towards completing Caractacus Op. 35. This oratorio recounts the historic drama of a British chieftain who heroically resisted the Roman legions at the British Camp on the Malvern Hills. Although defeated and carted off as a captive to Rome,  Caractacus so impressed Claudius, the fourth Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, that he was graciously pardoned.
Elgar’s interest in the intersections of Roman and British history extended to Julius Caesar (who mounted two invasions of Britain) and his reliance on cryptography to communicate clandestine orders to his legions and allies. Elgar retained in his personal library a series of four articles published by The Pall Mall Magazine in 1896 under the collective title Secrets In Cipher. John Holt Schooling prepared these informative and engaging exposés regarding the history of secret codes. The first installment—From Ancient Times To Late Elizabethan Days—provides an incisive description of a cipher used by Julius Caesar. Schooling writes, “...the historian Suetonius relates that when Caesar would convey any private business he did usually write it by substituting other letters of the alphabet for those which composed his real meaning—such as D for A, E for B, and so for the rest.” This elementary and widely known form of encipherment is known as the Caesar shift.  Elgar studied this basic encipherment technique at least two years before turning his attention to completing the Enigma Variations in 1898-99.
The chord played with the G of the first descending seventh in bar 3 of the Enigma Theme is a C minor added sixth chord. The notes of that chord are C, E-flat, G, and A. It is remarkable all the letters in the name Caesar that may be represented by musical notes (Caesar) are present in that particular chord. Notice too that the title Caesar has six letters. In consideration of these facts, it is entirely plausible Elgar applied Caesar’s encipherment method to the notes forming the falling sevenths in measures 3 and 4 of the Enigma Theme. But how many letters should the note letters be shifted, and in which direction? The bar numbers and note order within each descending seventh prove to be the keys. The bar number identifies the size the shift, and the order of the letters in the corresponding descending seventh designates the course either forward or backward within the musical alphabet which encompasses the first seven letters, A through G.
The first descending seventh in bar 3 begins on G and ends on A. The note A precedes G in the musical alphabet. The placement of the seventh letter before the first in this opening descending seventh indicates a backward course, and the bar number indicates a left shift in the alphabet of three letters. Counting back three letters in the musical alphabet is akin to applying a downward transposition of a third. When this intervallic shift is performed to the notes G and A in bar 3, it produces an E-flat and F respectively in the G minor mode.
The second falling seventh in bar 4 consists of the notes F and G which appear in sequential order. According to the key, this indicates a right shift forward in the musical alphabet with the bar number pinpointing the number of steps. Applying an upward transposition of a fourth to the notes F and A produces B-flat and C in the G minor mode. Stripped of their accidentals, the plaintext solution letters for the four notes of the two descending sevenths in bars 3 and 4 of the Enigma Theme are in order E, F, B, and C. The first three letters supply the initials for the covert Theme in the proper order, Ein feste Burg. The remaining letter C is a phonetic equivalent for the word sea. This particular letter is significant because Elgar quotes fragments from Mendelssohn’s overture Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage in Variation XIII to depict a steamer crossing a calm sea. With the notes of these marine quotations cited over an ostinato played by the violas recapitulating the Enigma Theme’s palindromic rhythm, Elgar deftly encodes the initials for Ein feste Burg via another Caesar shift cipher. In this context, it is incredibly revealing that the first syllable of Caesar’s name is the phonetic equivalent of sea, and the suggestive subtitle for that movement is Romanza.
The decryption of the Enigma Theme Locks Cipher confirms that Elgar applied a number-to-letter key by counting both forward and backward in the musical alphabet. A major benefit of this strategy is to harden the cipher against straightforward decryption. What could be more shifty than for Elgar to shift directions in his application of the Caesar shift cipher?
The note letters of the descending sevenths in measures 3 and 4 are also connected to the English translation of the covert Theme’s complete six-word title, A Mighty Fortress Is Our God. The second lower note (A) forming the first melodic seventh sounds by itself as the rest of the orchestra remains silent. This A is the only note in the descending sevenths that is played without any other accompanying voices. What significance could be attached to this solitary note that sounds alone? One credible explanation is that it implicates the first initial and word in the covert Theme’s title, A Mighty Fortress. Indeed, all four notes from the two descending sevenths are the first, third and sixth initials from the covert Theme’s complete six-word title, A Mighty Fortress Is Our God. It is salient to observe these are the only initials from that title which may be directly represented by letters from the musical alphabet. The third and sixth initials match the numerals from the opus number (36).
The order of the first falling seventh notes (G to A), hints at placing the end at the beginning, and the beginning at the end. This is the case because G is the last initial from the covert Theme’s complete six-word English title, and A is the first. The application of a reverse Caesar shift in bar 3 to the notes of the descending seventh further reinforces this suspicion which is verified by Elgar’s retrograde counterpoint of Ein feste Burg “through and over” the Enigma Theme. He begins his enigmatic counterpoint with the covert Theme’s last note and phrase and maps the entire melody backward over the Enigma Theme’s ABA’C structure. The Enigma Theme’s structure is a phonetic spelling of aback, a term that is defined as “backward” or “taken by surprise.” A retrograde counterpoint is both backward and surprising to those who expect the hidden melody would commence from its first note and phrase at the beginning. No wonder Elgar gave the opening Theme the title Enigma.
The chords performed with the descending sevenths by the remaining three voices of the string quartet are remarkable because they feature at their extremities the notes E-flat, F, and B. The E-flat appears on beat 3 of bar 3, and the F and B on beats 1 through 2 of bar 4. These note letters appear concurrently in the same narrow section of the score as the Falling Sevenths Cipher.
Elgar’s flexible treatment of a capital cursive E to construct various glyphs for his Dorabella Cipher demonstrates a willingness to reorient letters to resemble other meaningful symbols. Simply by changing the angle of a capital cursive E produces such varying outcomes as a letter M and the number 3.
This realization invites another plausible explanation for Elgar’s conspicuous reference to the Enigma Theme’s falling sevenths. When the number 7 literally falls, the inverted mirror image closely resembles a capital L. This phenomenon is easily visible on a playing card.
The rhythm of the descending sevenths the Enigma Theme is comprised of two quarter notes. This pattern is the equivalent of two dashes in Morse Code which encodes the letter M. When the Morse Code translation of the falling seventh’s rhythm is paired with an inverted 7, it produces ML. These two letters are the initials for Martin Luther, the composer of Ein feste Burg. This conclusion is reinforced by Elgar’s identification of the earliest sketch of Variation XIII with a solitary capital L. Only later did he append the letters ML, the initials for Martin Luther. In all, there are three interrelated sets of initials encoded by the Falling Sevenths Cipher. Two pertain to the German and English titles of the covert Theme, and a third to its composer.
The melodic intervals immediately preceding the falling sevenths in bars 3 and 4 of the Enigma Theme are a rising perfect 4th (D to G), and an ascending minor 6th (A to F). These two numbers are noteworthy because they may be merged to produce 46, the precise chapter from the Psalms that in its first line supplies the title of the covert Theme. The first letters of the performance directions from the Enigma Theme’s opening bar are an acrostic anagram for EE’s PSALM. These may be linked to the falling sevenths since there are precisely seven performance directions. The notes of the perfect 4th (D and G) preceding the first descending seventh are a reverse phonetic spelling of God, the final word of the covert Theme’s title. A central doctrine of Roman Catholicism is the belief that Jesus is one of three coeternal consubstantial persons that encompass the Triune God. It is far from arbitrary that Variation XIII begins with the melody notes G and D, its Roman numerals are a transparent number-to-letter cipher encoding the secret friend’s initials (JC), and the asterisks on the original sketch and published score are hexagrams—the Star of David.
Extensive research and analysis confirm the elusive secret melody to the Enigma Variations is the famous hymn Ein feste Burg (A Mighty Fortress) by the German Reformation leader Martin Luther. This was an unexpected discovery as Elgar was raised a devout Roman Catholic, a trait outwardly at odds with Luther who was proclaimed a heretic and excommunicated by Pope Leo X. Elgar was a committed disciple of the German School, an enclave of eminent composers who all share one conspicuous theme. Although Bach, Mendelssohn, and Wagner wrote in dramatically divergent styles and genres, they reverently quote Luther’s most popular hymn in their music. Elgar followed in the hallowed footsteps of his musical forebears, yet did so surreptitiously to avert open conflict with his proud Roman Catholic faith. No wonder he kept his secret with such devout resilience, particularly during and after World War I when anything remotely German was despised and ostracized from his beloved England.
An intricate Music Box Cipher situated in the opening six measures of the Enigma Theme encodes the complete 24-letter 6-word German title of the covert Theme in the form of a grand anagram. For example, the plaintext solution for bar 1 is GSUS, a phonetic spelling of Jesus, the name of the secret friend memorialized in Variation XIII. Elgar’s brilliant reshuffling of the letters produces meaningful and relevant phrases and words spelled out phonetically in Latin, English and what he reasonably believed to be Aramaic based on contemporaneous biblical commentaries in widespread use. In an astonishing display of cryptographic counterpoint, Elgar spells his last name in the form of an acrostic anagram utilizing the four languages revealed by the decryption: English, Latin, German and Aramaic. He signed his secret message using a second cipher only unveiled by the correct solution of the larger cryptogram. Elgar’s coded signature authenticates the decryption and verifies he dutifully recorded the correct answers to his Enigma Variations within the body of the full score.  The catch was he wrote down the solutions in cryptograms for posterity to eventually detect and decipher. To learn more concerning the secrets of the Enigma Variations, read my free eBook Elgar’s Enigmas Exposed.

About Mr. Padgett

My photo
Mr. Padgett studied violin with Michael Rosenker (a student of Leopold Auer), and Rosenker’s pupil, Owen Dunsford. Mr. Padgett studied piano with Sally Magee (a student of Emanuel Bay), and Blanca Uribe, a student of Rosina Lhévinne. He attended the Stevenson School in Pebble Beach, California, and Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York, where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a degree in psychology. At Vassar he studied music theory and composition with Richard Wilson. Mr. Padgett has performed for Joseph Silverstein, Van Cliburn, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Maria Shriver, Steve Jobs, Prince Charles, Lady Camilla, Marcia Davenport, William F. Buckley, Jr., and other prominent public figures. His original compositions have been performed by the Monterey Symphony, at the Bohemian Grove, the Bohemian Club, and other private and public venues. In 2008 Mr. Padgett won the Max Bragado-Darman Fanfare Competition with his entry "Fanfare for the Eagles." It was premiered by the Monterey Symphony under Maestro Bragado in May 2008. A member of the Elgar Society, Mr. Padgett is married with five children.